Set III, 42

TYPES OF CLAUSES AND CONJUNCTIONS

Dependent Clauses and Dependent Conjunctions

Dependent conjunction + subject + verb = Dependent clause

Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence and thus must be joined to an independent clause. Dependent clauses are often necessary to set up effective relationships between ideas. (Dependent clauses are underlined in the examples below.) 

After: After Coach Garp resigned, the school never had another winning wrestling team. 

Although: Although congress will pass the bill, the president will veto it. 

As: As the committee allocates funds, it records expenditures. 

As if: He criticized the government as if it was responsible for all of his problems

As soon as: As soon as the public tires of one sex symbol, a new one emerges. 

As though: The teacher hands out assignments as though they took five minutes to complete

Because: Because she planned the party well, everyone had a good time. 

Before: You must formulate a sound thesis sentence before you can write a good essay.

How: How Lizzie Borden could dismember her parents with an ax, few people can understand. 

If: If you follow every new leader who comes along, you will soon lose your identity.

Since: Since Carter was elected, inflation has risen. 

So that: I bought a new battery so that my car would start on cold days

Though: She appears very sophisticated though she is really naive

Unless: Unless you receive permission in advance, you can not go. 

Until: No grades will be assigned until all work is completed

When: When the sun sets, the mosquitoes hunt for dinner. 

Whenever: Fan support increases whenever the team starts winning

Where: I will meet you where the river thins into a stream

Wherever: The police followed him wherever he went

While: She was cleaning the house while her husband watched the ballgame

Why: We wanted to study why man craves immortality.

Punctuation note: When a dependent clause begins a sentence, a comma separates it from the independent clause that follows. Note the examples on the first page.

Note: A dependent or subordinate clause cannot stand alone in a sentence.

Independent clauses and coordinating conjunctions Subject + verb = independent clause For example: He studies. sub. verb Of course many independent clauses are more than just two words (sub. + verb). For example: The man with the fur hat works on the Alaska sub. verb Pipeline.

Independent clauses can stand alone as sentences. They can also be joined by coordinating conjunctions to form compound sentences. A compound sentence can add variety to your writing as well as drawing relationships.

Coordinating conjunction: and New Yorkers sometimes look down on other Americans as bumpkins, and other Americans sometimes view New Yorkers as pretentious snobs. but You may never be another Hemingway, but you can learn to write well. or The key players must recover from their injuries quickly, or the team will have little chance to win the conference title. nor She does not like drinking, nor does she like going into bars. for The child went to bed early, for his parents had company. yet I grew up fifteen minutes from New York, yet I never liked the Yankees.

Punctuation note: When you join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction, a comma comes before the conjunction.


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