Set III, 1

Useful Grammatical Terms

A. Noun (uses)

1. Subject | The five boys, my neighbors,

2. Appositive | (1) (2)

3. Predicate nominative | were leaders in many ways.

4. Object of preposition | (3) (4)

5. Indirect object | They gave our students much

6. Direct object | (5)

7. Word of address | help.

8. Adverbial noun | (6)

9. Adjectival noun | | Jill, did you walk home | (7) (8) | in the summer rain? | (9) |________________________________

B. Pronoun

1. Personal

a. Nominative case: I, you, he, she, it; we, you, they

b. Objective case: me, you, him, her, it; us, you, them

c. Possessive case: my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; your, yours; their, theirs

d. Reflexive and intensive: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Reflexive: The girl saw herself in the water's surface.

Intensive: The girl herself cut the log with the axe.

2. Demonstrative: this, that, these, those

3. Relative: who, whoever; whom, whomever; whose; which, whichever; that

4. Interrogative: who, whom, whose, which, what

5. Reciprocal: each other, one another

6. Indefinite: *all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, *more, *most, much, neither, nobody, *none, no one, nothing, one, oneself, other, several, *some, somebody, someone, something, such *S or PL depending on usage; plural

C. Verb

1. Principal parts

a. Infinitive: to be |to walk |to run |to burst

b. Present tense: I am | walk | run | burst you are | walk | run | burst it is | walks | runs | bursts

c. Past tense was | walked | ran | burst were | | |

d. Past participle been | walked | run | burst

e. Present participle being | walking| running| bursting

2. Conjugation

a. Present tense:

(1) Common I walk we walk you walk you walk he, she, it walks they walk

(2) Emphatic I do walk we do walk you do walk you do walk he, she, it does walk they do walk

(3) Progressive I am walking we are walking you are walking you are walking he, she, it is walking they are walking

b. Past tense:

(1) Common I walked we walked you walked you walked he, she, it walked they walked

(2) Emphatic I did walk we did walk you did walk you did walk he, she it did walk they did walk

(3) Progressive I was walking we were walking you were walking you were walking he, she, it was walking they were walking

c. Future tense:

(1) Common I *shall/**will walk we *shall/**will walk you will/shall walk you will/shall walk he, she, it will/shall walk they will/shall walk

(2) Progressive I shall be walking we shall be walking you will be walking you will be walking he, she, it will be walking they will be walking

*simple future: **emphatic future: the distinction is seldom used today in the various future tenses. Will is widely used throughout except in some questions: shall I pour the tea?

d. Present perfect tense:

(1) Common I have walked we have walked you have walked you have walked he, she, it has walked they have walked

(2) Progressive I have been walking we have been walking you have been walking you have been walking he, she, it has been walking they have been walking

e. Past perfect tense:

(1) Common I had walked we had walked you had walked you had walked he, she, it had walked they had walked

(2) Progressive I had been walking we had been walking you had been walking you had been walking he, she, it had been walking they had been walking

f. Future perfect tense:

(1) Common I shall have walked we shall have walked you will have walked you will have walked he, she, it will have walked they will have walked

(2) Progressive I shall have been walking we shall have been walking you will have been walking you will have been walking he, she, it will have been walking they will have been walking

3. Voice ACTIVE *PASSIVE Subject acts Subject acted upon I carry a book. (am carrying) A book is carried by me. (is being I carried a book. A book was carried by me. carried) I shall carry a book. A book will be carried by me. I shall have been carrying a book. A book will have been carried by me. I have carried a book. A book has been carried by me. I had carried a book. A book had been carried by me. I shall have carried a book. A book will have been carried by me.

*To form the passive voice, use a form of to be and the past participle. Only transitive verbs can be put in the passive voice. Helpers may be used too.

4. Transitive: Two things are involved in the action: the subject (1) and the direct object (2) in the active voice and the subject (2) and the object of the preposition by (1) in the passive voice.

ACTIVE VOICE: S V DO PASSIVE VOICE: S V PREP/PH (1) (2) (2) (1) Mary visited Bill. Bill was visited by Mary. (1) (2) (2) (1) The boy kicked the ball. The ball was kicked by the boy. (1) (2) (2) (1) They saw you. You were seen by them. (1) (2) (2) (1) The subject (1) of the active voice verb becomes the object of a preposition by (1) with the passive voice verb. The direct object (2) of the active voice verb becomes the subject (2) of the passive voice verb. If a third thing is involved in the action, it is the indirect object (3). *When the indirect object (3) of the active voice verb becomes the subject (3) of the passive voice verb, the verb retains its direct object (2).

ACTIVE VOICE: SV IO DO PASSIVE VOICE: S V IO PREP/PH (1) (3) (2) (2) (3) (1) The boy gave me the ball. The ball was given to me by the boy. (1) (3) (2) (2) (3) (1) The boy gave the ball to me. *I was given the ball by the boy. (1) (2) (3) (3) (2) (3)

5. Intransitive: Only the subject is involved in the action. There is NO VOICE for this type of verb. The dogs are lying down on the lawn. Grandma sits in the rocking chair. The sun does rise too early for us. The swimmers had been diving into the water. He has lain there for two hours. The chicken had sat on the egg for hours. Will you smile again for me?

6. Linking: am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been; seem, grow, feel, become, look, taste, sound, smell, act, appear, turn, run, go, etc. There are over fifty verbs that can function as linking verbs. The conditions listed below must prevail, however, before the verb can be a linking verb. This verb links the subject to a word in the predicate: noun (equals the subject), pronoun (same), or adjective (describes the subject). He is the writer. He acts old. It was I. Sally fell silent. NOT LINKING: Sally fell downstairs. The farmer grows corn. The corn grew rapidly. but. . . The farmer grows anxious. The corn had grown tall.

7. Auxiliary or helper to be: am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been; to have: have, has, had, having; others: can, could; did, do, does; may, might, must; shall, should; will, would.

8. Verbals: verb forms used as other parts of speech. A verbal with its modifiers and/or completer words is known as a verbal phrase. Verbal--Running toned up his system. (Gerund=subject) Verbal phrase--The man's running three miles every day toned up his system. (running=gerund=subject)

a. Gerund: the present participle used as a NOUN (See numbered uses of the noun, page 1.) His special talent is singing (3). His singing (1) won him a prize. They tried singing (6) for a change. The new work, singing (2), was not easy for me. The judges did not give me a prize for singing (4).

b. Participle: present or past participle used as an ADJECTIVE I looked at the grinning boy. The people, cheering and singing, had fun. Running, barking, and jumping, the dogs ran across the muddy field, chasing rabbits. The boys, tired from the hike, set up camp. Broken bones are no fun. The smeared paper could not be read.

c. Infinitive: to plus the basic verb form, used as a NOUN, an ADJECTIVE, or an ADVERB. Sometimes the to is understood. The men expected to arrive at noon (noun--object of the verb). The man to be elected was not here (adjective--which man?). They were anxious to see the game (adverb--how anxious?). to be elected and to see the game=infinitive phrases.

D. Adjective: It describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers these questions: Which? What kind of? How many? How much?

1. One word: The paper is green. The green paper is pretty. The pretty green paper was used. A blue-eyed girl was here. A girl, blue-eyed and blonde, was here. We study American history.

2. Prepositional phrase: The fish in the ocean are numerous. I went into the house on the corner. The ringing in my ear had to be stopped.

3. Infinitive phrase: The book to read today is on the table. Where is the money to spend for the gifts? The new recipe to give to our old cook is in my purse.

4. Participle and participial phrase: We saw the crying boy. The boy, whistling and bowing, was applauded. The burned meat did not taste good. The people entering the building were late. Entered and ransacked by thieves, the room was a mess. We had been running down the street, shouting loudly to our friends nearby.

5. Clause: We saw the man [who won the race.] The number [that you called] was not listed. The kids went up the hill [which was steep.]

E. ADVERB: It modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It answers the following questions: When? Where? How? How much? How often? In what manner? To what extent? Why? In what order?

1. One word: They ran quickly. Tomorrow they will go. The children were very good. The small girls sat down. The students were equally prepared. When are you going? He had ten tickets in one month; consequently, his license was suspended. It is not true. How does it work?

2. Prepositional phrase: They ran down the stairs in a hurry. In a hurry they ran down the stairs. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred.

3. Infinitive phrase: He went to see his friend The lady was kind to try the puzzle.

4. Clause: [When I see you,] I'll give you my address. The students sat down [after the bell rang.]

F. Preposition: It shows a relationship between the object of the preposition and another word in the sentence. As the preposition changes, there is a change in the relationship between the object of the preposition and the other word. Al stood beside the car. Dogs ran through the hut. stood near the car. ran behind the hut. stood behind the car. ran around the hut. stood on the car. ran by the hut.

Words frequently used as prepositions:

aboard as far as concerning like throughout about as to contrary to near till above as despite of to according to at down off toward across back of due to on under after because of during on account of until against before except onto unto ahead of behind for out up along below from out of upon alongside beneath in over up to amid beside in front of owing to via amidst besides in place of past with among between inside per within apart from beyond in spite of round without apropos but (except) in view of since around by into through ______________________________________________________________________

Prepositional phrase

1. It cannot contain the subject of a clause.

2. It cannot contain the verb of a clause.

3. It cannot contain the direct object of a verb or a verbal.

4. It cannot contain the predicate word after a linking verb.

5. It must have a preposition and an object. It normally begins with the preposition, ends with the object. This object can be compound. The object answers What? or whom? after the preposition.

6. At times the preposition is placed at the end of the sentence: we didn't know what (object) to begin with (preposition) we didn't know with what to begin.

7. The words between the preposition and its object are usually adjectives.

8. If a prepositional phrase begins the sentence, the preposition normally shows a relationship between its object and the verb.

9. A prepositional phrase can be used as an adjective and an adverb. Occasionally it can be used as a noun: Over the fence is out.

Adjective: When the preposition shows a relationship between its object and another noun or pronoun, the entire prepositional phrase is used as an adjective to modify or describe that noun or pronoun. Five pronouns in the book on this table are obsolete. We felt the warmth of the fire in the pot-bellied stove.

Adverb: When the preposition shows a relationship between its object and a verb, an adverb, or an adjective, the entire prepositional phrase is used as an adverb to modify that verb, adverb, or adjective. The children were anxious for their dinner. Throughout the week the men worked. The children ran across the yard after the ball. In class today we shall diagram sentences at our desks.

G. Conjunction

1. Coordinating: It joins words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank (i.e., nouns and/or pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc.). The grammatical | and | structure should be equal also. | or | | nor | Mother and father were here but left. | but | | yet | They wanted to be seen and to be heard. | *for | | *so | Mary worked, but she left early. Young or old people enjoy her daily column. *joins clauses only

2. Correlative: These conjunctions are used in pairs: either. . or; neither. . .nor; not only. . .but also; both. . .and. They introduce the same grammatical structure. [Either] we go today [or] we stay a full week. They wanted to see [not only] the small villages off the main highway [but also] the larger cities near the freeway. [Both] questions [and] comments were encouraged.

3. Subordinate: It joins the subordinate (dependent) clause to a word in the principal (independent or main) clause. We knew that they had printed the paper. After he ate, he lay down.

Words frequently used as subordinating conjunctions

after         how         so that         when
although         if         than         whenever
as         in order         that         where
as if         lest         though         whereas
as though         provided         till         whether
because         provided that         unless         while
before         since         until         why

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